Heterodont Dentition in both Vertebrates and Invertebrates

Heterodont according to the anatomy is possession of different type of teeth or morphology. This kind of dentition is common among mammals. The dentition of a species is in line with its adaptation of feeding or hunting for its prey. The different teeth include the canine, incisors, molars and premolars. Each of these is adapted well to their function.

Heterodont animal teeth in vertebrates have a significant difference from that of homodont. In homodont teeth are all of the same forms and are not differentiated according to their function. In invertebrates, teeth of different size and shape are in plate hinges. They are differentiated into cardinal teeth that are situated underneath the umbo and lateral teeth that are located posterior and front to the umbo.



Functions and adaptations of the heterodont teeth

The incisors – these are mainly four teeth situated in the front of the mouth. They serve the purpose of cutting food with their sharp edges. They are single rooted to the gum, the crown is vaulted and is angled to form a protruding a sharp edge.

Canines – these types of teeth are also referred to as the cuspids. They are next to the lateral incisors and are used to grasping, holding on firmly and tearing food. They are usually referred to as the cornerstone of the mouth. They are the most firmly held teeth in the gum having a long root to make them firm for their role.

Premolars – they are also called bicuspids. They grow next to the canines and are normally four in number. They are used for crushing and holding food with their cusps. The first premolars are held on the gum by a bifurcated root while the rest have one root. Possession of cusps is an adaptation to make sure once food is grasp it cannot slip away.

Molars – they are also called the wisdom teeth. They are classified into three different arches, the first molars that are located next to premolars; the second molar then grows next, and the third are the last in the mouth. They serve the purpose of grinding food into fine particles before swallowing.

They have a broad surface to give a broad surface for grinding. They are fitted in the gum by either bifurcated of trifurcated roots. Teeth are heavy and, therefore, require strong muscles to enable them execute their functions correctly. There has been consecutive evolution of the teeth mostly in mammals with respect to their adaptation.


How to Stop Your Cat Peeing and Spraying Outside the Litter Box

You wake up or get home and you smell the undeniable pungent smell of Fluffy. You walk around and you just know the cat has peed somewhere, but how are you going to find it? It can be near impossible to find everywhere your cat has sprayed. So if this is you the question you are asking yourself is how to stop your cat peeing and spraying outside the litter box.
Learn How To Stop Your Cat from peeing everywhere!
What do you do?
One of the easiest things to do to help prevent the cat from spraying in your home is to make sure you keep its litter box scooped. Cats are really particular and they don’t want to go to the bathroom in a dirty box. What looks clean to you doesn’t look clean to them so if their box isn’t maintain they might spray in the house. If you have more than one cat you should have at least three litter boxes because some cats don’t like to share.

Even if you just have one cat two boxes are a good idea so they can just go to the other one if they deem one unworthy. Another thing you might not know is a cat will get stressed out when you change something with their box. If you switch out the liter or move it to a new location keep a box in the same place with the same litter so they still have that option. Change is not something […] Continue Reading…


How To Bleach Jeans

There are few things hipper than a pair of bleached jeans. Unfortunately, adding this complimenting and trendy clothing can come with a steep price tag. What if I told you there was a how-to do it yourself at home with jeans you already have? And/or if I told you that this process if relatively inexpensive?

Well if this idea appeals to you, read on and I will walk you through the materials that you will need for this project, and the steps that you will have to take to complete it.
What you need

Rubber gloves
Bathtub or other bleach resistant workstation (you can also do this outside if you so choose)
Old clothes that you don’t mind getting bleached
Surgical mask
Source of ventilation (if you’re working indoors)

How-to bleach your jeans
First you will need to select your bleach solution. The way that I would recommend that you do this is that you get a practice piece of clothing to see how bleach effects your clothing. This process is irreversible, so be sure to try this on a piece of denim that is similar to the one that you plan on bleaching. I would also recommend that you try several different solutions to see which one you prefer.

Next you’ll need a work space. I would suggest doing this in a bathtub in a bathroom with a fan. This will make sure that you have a work station with proper ventilation that will keep clean up to a minimum. Also be sure to climb into your clothes that […] Continue Reading…


3 Tips On How To Make Work Boots Comfortable

Do you love your current pair of work boots? Are you worried about retaining their top quality work and making them more comfortable? If you do not know how to care for your work boots, your shoes may become the victims of wear and tear and become very uncomfortable when you wear them.

In order to enhance the comfortability of your work boots, you need to know few tips to treat them with proper techniques. Here are 3 tips on how to make work boots comfortable.


Tip 1 – Clean your boots properly First step is to clean your shoes properly. Initially, you need to remove the insoles and shoelaces of your boot. Then use your old toothbrush to gently get rid of the dirt on your shoes. Now make use of special boot cleaner liquid and mix it with water to prepare a cleaning solution.

Then dip the brush into the solution and use it to remove the debris and the dirt located on the outside of your shoes. Use vinegar to clean the excess of the solution on your boots. Finally, you can use clean water to remove any mold and other remaining dirt on your shoes and keep them in the sunlight for few hours to get rid of the excess water.

Tip 2 – Dry your boots carefully: The next step is to carefully make your boots dry. Remove the insoles of your shoes and let them be clean for few hours. This will help you to avoid the growth […] Continue Reading…


About Gnawing Teeth Animals

Rodents are superbly adapted with regard to gnawing. In fact, the term rodent is derived from Latin “rodere” which means to gnaw. Rodents have their curved incisors always growing. In fact, if rodents never gnawed, their teeth would grow too big to fit in their small mouths. The most striking characteristic of rodents is therefore their big teeth in relation to their otherwise to their small-sized mouths.

Some rodents gnaw for survival. For instance, a beaver’s ability to gnaw is crucial to its very survival. These large rodents are only second to human beings with respect to their ability to adapt to their present environment. Beavers use their sharp incisors to fell trees and crew through logs in order to create natural dams by stopping water flow in rivers.


Types of animals
Rats and mice are the commonest gnawing teeth animals. Since mice and rats like residing in human homes, they are the most well-known nuisances within the class of gnawing animals. Both animals are gifted with excellent incisors for gnawing. The dentin found on the inside side of the tooth is soft, which means that whenever the animal gnaws the tooth gets worn out and it is thus clipped so as not grow too long. If the rat or mice did not chew, the incisors would grow and penetrate the palate leading to the starvation of the little mammal.

The squirrel is another in the class of gnawing animals. They have tough incisors that help them crack through hard nuts. If a […] Continue Reading…